During the 1787 Constitutional Convention, representatives from the less populated states feared their voices would face domination by larger, more populated states. Many claim that fear is still valid today (e.g., look at the difference in population between Wyoming and California). To allay this fear, and achieve ratification of our Constitution at the convention, the founders came up with a compromise.
The Constitution’s founders proposed Congress be formed of an upper house called the Senate, and a lower house called the House of Representatives. Together, these two entities would form the national bicameral legislature of the United States. This formation was then codified in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. When formed, the Senate would have two Senators from each state, and those seats in the House of Representatives would be apportioned and filled according to the population of individual states in the union. Today, with fifty states, Congress has one hundred Senators in the Senate, and four hundred thirty-five State Representatives in the House of Representatives.